Whenever bidders at an auction are aware of the identity of the other bidders there is a risk that they will form a "ring" or "pool" and thus manipulate the auction result, a practice known as collusion. By agreeing to bid only against outsiders, never against members of the "ring", competition becomes weaker, which may dramatically affect the final price level. After the end of the official auction an unofficial auction may take place among the "ring" members. The difference in price between the two auctions could then be split among the members. This form of a ring was used as a central plot device in the opening episode of the 1979 British television series The House of Caradus, 'For Love or Money', uncovered by Helena Caradus on her return from Paris.
One way the federal government finances its activities is by the sale of marketable Treasury bills, notes, bonds, Floating Rate Notes (FRNs), and Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) to the public. Marketable securities can be bought, sold or transferred after they are originally issued. Treasury uses an auction process to sell marketable securities and determine their rate, yield, or discount margin. The value of Treasury marketable securities fluctuates with changes in interest rates and market demand. You can participate in an auction and purchase bills, notes, bonds, FRNs, and TIPS directly from the Treasury or you can purchase them through a bank or broker. Marketable securities held in your account can be sold at current market prices through brokers and many financial institutions. 

The money raised from the sale of ex-Police Cars goes back to the police forces selling them. After the auctioneer fee and decommissioning costs it’s considered to be the most cost effective method open to the police when renewing their fleet. This is all good news for the consumer. If you’re willing to overlook some of the cosmetic scarring that can result from decommissioned Police vehicles then you can drive off having made a tidy saving. GAUK Auctions database lists every auctioneer where you can find police cars. 

The Federal Reserve, also known as the Fed, is the central bank of the United States, and it monetizes U.S. debt when it buys U.S. Treasury bills, bonds, and notes. When the Federal Reserve purchases these Treasurys, it doesn't have to print money to do so. It issues credit to the Federal Reserve member banks that hold the Treasurys and then it puts them on its own balance sheet. It does this through an office at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Everyone treats the credit just like money, even though the Fed doesn't print actual cash.
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This is the practice, especially by high-end art auctioneers,[64] of raising false bids at crucial times in the bidding in order to create the appearance of greater demand or to extend bidding momentum for a work on offer. To call out these nonexistent bids auctioneers might fix their gaze at a point in the auction room that is difficult for the audience to pin down.[65] The practice is frowned upon in the industry.[65] In the United States, chandelier bidding is not illegal. In fact, an auctioneer may bid up the price of an item to the reserve price, which is an unstated amount the consignor will not sell the item for. However, the auction house is required to disclose this information. 

... cdebt.treas.gov 2 Krishna (2002), among others, analyzes the uniform auction in which the uniform price is the highest losing bid, the multi-unit version of a second price auction. We analyze the uniform auction with the price set to the lowest winning bid because that is what Treasuries use; it is the multi-unit version of the first-price auction. Brenner et al (2009) surveyed 48 countries, of which 24 used the discriminatory format and 9 the uniform format. tion, which in turn is higher than the low bid in the uniform auction. For both auction formats, bidders shade their bids with respect to the expected value of the good, conditional on the signal observation, for all signals but the lowest. We ch ...
... Bourjade (2009) modified the uniform-price auction rules in allowing the seller to ration bidders and proved that this rules provide a strategic foundation for underpricing when the seller has an interest in ownership dispersion and then many of the so-called "collusive-seeming" equilibria disappear. Brenner et al. (2009) investigated the revealed preferences of the issuers by surveying the sovereign issuers that conduct auctions and found that the majority of the issuers/countries in our sample use a discriminatory auction mechanism for issuing government debt, and they also concluded that market-oriented eco- Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 2015, 21(1): 96-117 nomies and those that practice common law tend to use a uniform method while economies who are less market oriented and practice civil law tend to use discriminatory price auctions. Holmberg (2009) characterized the Nash equilibrium in a pay-as-bid, divisible-good, pro- curement auction, and compared the offer curves and mark-ups of the derived equilibrium to the results for the SFE of a uniform-price auction. ...
The primary dealers form a worldwide network that distributes new U.S. government debt. For example, Daiwa Securities and Mizuho Securities distribute the debt to Japanese buyers. BNP Paribas, Barclays, Deutsche Bank, and RBS Greenwich Capital (a division of the Royal Bank of Scotland) distribute the debt to European buyers. Goldman Sachs, and Citigroup account for many American buyers. Nevertheless, most of these firms compete internationally and in all major financial centers.

The 18 City of Los Angeles Official Police Garages (OPGs) hold Lien Sales Auctions. The auctions are open to the public. All vehicles are sold "AS IS, WHERE IS" and with all faults. Seller makes no warranty or refunds. Vehicles are sold in an open competitive bid auction. The highest bidder is the buyer. The auctioneer reserves the right to reject any bid or stop the sale of a vehicle. In the event of a dispute, the auctioneer's decision will be final.
Silent auction is a variant of the English auction in which bids are written on a sheet of paper. At the predetermined end of the auction, the highest listed bidder wins the item.[43] This auction is often used in charity events, with many items auctioned simultaneously and "closed" at a common finish time.[43][44] The auction is "silent" in that there is no auctioneer selling individual items,[43] the bidders writing their bids on a bidding sheet often left on a table near the item.[45] At charity auctions, bid sheets usually have a fixed starting amount, predetermined bid increments, and a "guaranteed bid" amount which works the same as a "buy now" amount. Other variations of this type of auction may include sealed bids.[43] The highest bidder pays the price he or she submitted.[43]
The relationship between the Fed and the primary dealers is governed by the Primary Dealers Act of 1988 and the Fed's operating policy "Administration of Relationships with Primary Dealers."[6] Primary dealers purchase the vast majority of the U.S. Treasury securities (T-bills, T-notes, and T-bonds) sold at auction, and resell them to the public. Their activities extend well beyond the Treasury market. For example, according to the Wall Street Journal Europe (2/9/06 p. 20), all of the top ten dealers in the foreign exchange market are also primary dealers, and between them account for almost 73% of foreign exchange trading volume. Arguably, this group's members are the most influential and powerful non-governmental institutions in global financial markets. Group membership changes slowly, with the current list available from the New York Fed.[2]
You can find some information online, on government websites which will let you search your area for a particular vehicle. These sites are not limited to cars, either. You can find SUVs, trucks and motorcycles on many of them too. Doing a ZIP code search and choosing a specific model will show you all the vehicles within a certain distance from you. Police specific auctions can be found by other websites like gov-auctions, which tells you when and where the local auctions will take place.
DON'T MISS OUT ON THIS OUTRAGEOUS AUCTION SALE!!!! NEW PERLICK DUAL TOWER BEER KEGERATOR, NEW PERLICK BAR BACK, NEW TRUE 2 DOOR COOLER, NEW TRUE ONE DOOR FREEZER, NEW ICE-O-MATIC ICE MACHINE, NEW GLAS TENDER BEER COOLER, PERLICK BEER COOLER, GLAS TENDER BAR BACK, NEW TRUE BEVERAGE MERCHANDISER, NEW TURBO AIR FREEZER MERCHANDISER, NEW FWE FOOD WARMING CABINET, SCOTSMAN ICE MACHINE, NEW ALTO SHAAM   [ View Full Listing ]
26-Mar Italy CTZ/BTPi auction 26-Mar Japan Auction of 40-year government bonds 26-Mar Germany Auction of 2-year Treasury notes 27-Mar United States Sale of 2-year floating rate notes 27-Mar United States Sale of 5-year notes 27-Mar Italy Bills auction 27-Mar Sweden Auction of government bonds 27-Mar Norway Auction of Treasuries 27-Mar Germany Auction of 10-year Federal bonds 28-Mar United States Sale of 7-year notes 28-Mar Italy Medium-long term auction 28-Mar Japan Auction of 2-year government bonds 1-Apr Japan Auction of 10-year government bonds 2-Apr Belgium Auction of Treasury bills 3-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 3-Apr Japan Auction of 30-year government bonds 3-Apr Sweden Auction of Treasury bills 4-Apr Sweden Auction of inflation-linked government bonds 5-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 8-Apr Norway Auction of Treasury bills 8-Apr France Auction of BTF Treasury notes 9-Apr United States Sale of 3-year notes 9-Apr Japan 6-month discount bill auction 9-Apr Japan Auction of 5-year government bonds 9-Apr Belgium Auction of Treasury bills 10-Apr United States Sale of 10-year notes 10-Apr Sweden Auction of government bonds 10-Apr Norway Auction of Treasuries 11-Apr United States Sale of 30-year bond 11-Apr Italy Bills auction 12-Apr Italy Medium-long term auction 12-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 16-Apr Japan Auction of 20-year government bonds 18-Apr Japan 1-year discount bill auction 18-Apr France Index-linked Securities auction 19-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 23-Apr United States Sale of 2-year notes 23-Apr Japan Auction of 2-year government bonds 24-Apr United States Sale of 2-year floating rate notes 24-Apr United States Sale of 5-year notes 24-Apr Italy Zero Coupon/BTPi auction 24-Apr Sweden Auction of government bonds 25-Apr United States Sale of 7-year notes 26-Apr Italy Bills auction 27-Apr Italy Medium-long term auction 29-Apr Belgium OLO Auction
Lots at police auctions range from brand new or graded from A down in used condition, or goods may be slightly marked. A good example would be high quality white goods. All items listed in any police auction are available for viewing and inspection prior to the sale. Faulty or damaged goods should be clearly marked, and faults are outlined by the auctioneer during the auction.
The relationship between the Fed and the primary dealers is governed by the Primary Dealers Act of 1988 and the Fed's operating policy "Administration of Relationships with Primary Dealers."[6] Primary dealers purchase the vast majority of the U.S. Treasury securities (T-bills, T-notes, and T-bonds) sold at auction, and resell them to the public. Their activities extend well beyond the Treasury market. For example, according to the Wall Street Journal Europe (2/9/06 p. 20), all of the top ten dealers in the foreign exchange market are also primary dealers, and between them account for almost 73% of foreign exchange trading volume. Arguably, this group's members are the most influential and powerful non-governmental institutions in global financial markets. Group membership changes slowly, with the current list available from the New York Fed.[2]
Bid NOW http://baileyshonor.com/auctions/2019/OL190321/details.htm Over 70 pieces of Roseville Pottery, 25 lots of vintage colored plastic table top radios and transistors, Over 35 lots of antique and vintage clocks (mantle and alarm), nice painted primitive cupboards and cabinets including corner cabinets and pie safe, Shaker and Deacon benches, Hoosier style kitchen cupboards, 60" HD 3D   [ View Full Listing ]

Katehakis and Puranam provided the first model[62] for the problem of optimal bidding for a firm that in each period procures items to meet a random demand by participating in a finite sequence of auctions. In this model an item valuation derives from the sale of the acquired items via their demand distribution, sale price, acquisition cost, salvage value and lost sales. They established monotonicity properties for the value function and the optimal dynamic bid policy. They also provided a model[63] for the case in which the buyer must acquire a fixed number of items either at a fixed buy-it-now price in the open market or by participating in a sequence of auctions. The objective of the buyer is to minimize his expected total cost for acquiring the fixed number of items.
Removal of all items shall be the sole responsibility of the purchaser. Loading assistance is provided as a courtesy; however, purchaser assumes all risk and responsibility for loading and removal of purchases. Auctioneer reserves the right to require proof of adequate insurance coverage from any purchaser items requiring dismantling, rigging or hot cutting. Purchaser agrees to indemnify and save harmless both, consignor and Auctioneer, its officers, directors, employees, agents, and attorneys against any damage caused by the acts of purchaser. All items must be removed from the auction facility within 2 days after the auction date. If for any reason purchaser fails to remove any purchase within the time specified, the purchase shall be deemed abandoned, and Auctioneer at its sole discretion may resell the items. Purchaser shall be liable for any rent incurred or damages suffered by Auctioneer because of purchaser’s failure to remove any item. Failure to remove items will result in a rental / storage fee of not less than $25 per item per day.

Policeauctions.com is run by a private company and is not affiliated with the government. It provides information and links to government-run auctions, but the site itself is part of the wholesale liquidation auction market. Items are sold as is and sometimes there are fees. You have to register to bid and get information, but it doesn’t cost anything to join the site.
Reverse auction is a type of auction in which the roles of the buyer and the seller are reversed, with the primary objective to drive purchase prices downward.[41] While ordinary auctions provide suppliers the opportunity to find the best price among interested buyers, reverse auctions give buyers a chance to find the lowest-price supplier. During a reverse auction, suppliers may submit multiple offers, usually as a response to competing suppliers’ offers, bidding down the price of a good or service to the lowest price they are willing to receive. By revealing the competing bids in real time to every participating supplier, reverse auctions promote “information transparency”. This, coupled with the dynamic bidding process, improves the chances of reaching the fair market value of the item.[42]
DATE COUNTRY AUCTION DETAILS 19-Mar Japan 1-year discount bill auction 19-Mar Japan Auction of 20-year government bonds 20-Mar Germany Auction of 5-year Federal notes 20-Mar Portugal Auction of Treasury bills 21-Mar Sweden Auction of inflation-linked government bonds 21-Mar France Index-linked Securities auction 21-Mar Spain Bond Auction 22-Mar Japan 3-month discount bill auction 26-Mar United States Sale of 2-year notes
In order to appeal the decision to seize your goods, you will want to write out a Notice of Claim and hand in the appeal personally. Only the individual who owned the goods at the time of seizure is allowed to appeal the decision to seize them. It is well within your right to appeal the decision to take the goods or merchandise you owned while, at the same time, requesting that Customs return the items to you.
Middleby Marshall Pizza Oven, Southbend 10 Burner Range, Cold Tech Sandwich Prep Table, Delfield Lowboy, Vulcan Steamer, Dixie Vending Machine, Ugolini Dual Slush Machine, Jackson Dishwasher, True 2 Door Beverage Cooler, Vulcan Flat Grill, Imperial Deep Fat Fryer, Elite Deep Fat Fryer, Fine Ceramic Ware, Robot Coupe Immersion Blender, Generac Generator, Champion Generator, True One Door Cooler,   [ View Full Listing ]
Real property - Primarily, this consists of developed land with buildings, usually acquired by the federal government for a specific purpose, such as a military base or office building. This also includes some U.S. Forest Service properties, which usually consist of administrative sites and facilities. The General Services Administration (GSA) is the federal agency responsible for selling developed surplus property.  
Once a car has served its time, it’s stripped of all its Police markings, siren, radio, gun box and serviced, before going under the hammer. These vehicles may have done more miles than your average family runabout but, Police Cars are kept in tip-top condition. No expense is spared in keeping these motors immaculate and they receive the best parts, tyres, even oil.
GAUK Police Auctions & Sales category lists everything you need in an easy to read page outlining all the details of Police Auctions within the UK. In an attempt to stop the lost and found departments becoming crammed and to reduce the number of items stored in the Police Property Store UK police forces sell consignments of stolen and recovered and seized goods through a Police Auction. These sales include vehicles, bicycles, clothing, electronics, furniture and many other items, which end up in the police property room.

... cdebt.treas.gov 2 Krishna (2002), among others, analyzes the uniform auction in which the uniform price is the highest losing bid, the multi-unit version of a second price auction. We analyze the uniform auction with the price set to the lowest winning bid because that is what Treasuries use; it is the multi-unit version of the first-price auction. Brenner et al (2009) surveyed 48 countries, of which 24 used the discriminatory format and 9 the uniform format. tion, which in turn is higher than the low bid in the uniform auction. For both auction formats, bidders shade their bids with respect to the expected value of the good, conditional on the signal observation, for all signals but the lowest. We ch ...


I returned home wishing I had never gone to this auction, because as someone trying to get over his junky-vehicle hoarding tendencies, I’m not strong enough to handle this kind of temptation. Sure, many of these cars were junk, but they were dirt cheap. And since most were impounded for some sort of driving infraction, there’s a decent chance they move under their own power.
Auction includes over 1,000 items from State and Federal agencies, abandoned safe deposit boxes, unredeemed pledged assets from various Financial Institutions, several business inventory liquidations, several estates and other consignors. Auction will feature collectible coins & currency, rare art, fine jewelry, luxury watches, sports memorabilia, rugs, electronics, all types of collectibles & much more! 
You shouldn’t notice any difference and the link will never negatively impact the product. Plus the editorial line (the things we write) is NEVER impacted by these links. We aim to look at all available products. If it isn't possible to get an affiliate link for the top deal, it is still included in exactly the same way, just with a non-paying link. For more details, read How This Site Is Financed.
If you have had items taken by customs, there are a few different steps that you can take. If you believe that your goods were seized wrongfully or that customs had no legal right to take the items in question, you have 5 days to challenge the decision after receiving your Notice of Seizure. Your reasoning can be that the items were not in fact prohibited or restricted for importation, the goods were to be given away and not sold, and other reasons that could make the decision to have the goods seized incorrect.
As you browse the government auction sites above, you'll notice some link you to additional sites run by private contractors. These contractors have legitimate relationships with the government, but bidder beware: other private companies will try to make their auctions seem like government auctions as a marketing ploy. Always start with the legitimate links provided by the government itself. Good luck!
DATE COUNTRY AUCTION DETAILS 19-Mar Japan 1-year discount bill auction 19-Mar Japan Auction of 20-year government bonds 20-Mar Germany Auction of 5-year Federal notes 20-Mar Portugal Auction of Treasury bills 21-Mar Sweden Auction of inflation-linked government bonds 21-Mar France Index-linked Securities auction 21-Mar Spain Bond Auction 22-Mar Japan 3-month discount bill auction 26-Mar United States Sale of 2-year notes

The Federal Reserve, also known as the Fed, is the central bank of the United States, and it monetizes U.S. debt when it buys U.S. Treasury bills, bonds, and notes. When the Federal Reserve purchases these Treasurys, it doesn't have to print money to do so. It issues credit to the Federal Reserve member banks that hold the Treasurys and then it puts them on its own balance sheet. It does this through an office at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Everyone treats the credit just like money, even though the Fed doesn't print actual cash.
The process begins several days before the scheduled auction when the Treasury announces the details of the upcoming issue, including the amount to be auctioned and the maturity date. When you participate in an auction, you have two bidding options – competitive and noncompetitive. TreasuryDirect allows noncompetitive bidding only. Noncompetitive bidding is limited to purchases of $5 million per auction. Bidding limits apply cumulatively to all methods (TreasuryDirect, banks, and brokers) that are used for bidding in a single auction.

26-Mar Italy CTZ/BTPi auction 26-Mar Japan Auction of 40-year government bonds 26-Mar Germany Auction of 2-year Treasury notes 27-Mar United States Sale of 2-year floating rate notes 27-Mar United States Sale of 5-year notes 27-Mar Italy Bills auction 27-Mar Sweden Auction of government bonds 27-Mar Norway Auction of Treasuries 27-Mar Germany Auction of 10-year Federal bonds 28-Mar United States Sale of 7-year notes 28-Mar Italy Medium-long term auction 28-Mar Japan Auction of 2-year government bonds 1-Apr Japan Auction of 10-year government bonds 2-Apr Belgium Auction of Treasury bills 3-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 3-Apr Japan Auction of 30-year government bonds 3-Apr Sweden Auction of Treasury bills 4-Apr Sweden Auction of inflation-linked government bonds 5-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 8-Apr Norway Auction of Treasury bills 8-Apr France Auction of BTF Treasury notes 9-Apr United States Sale of 3-year notes 9-Apr Japan 6-month discount bill auction 9-Apr Japan Auction of 5-year government bonds 9-Apr Belgium Auction of Treasury bills 10-Apr United States Sale of 10-year notes 10-Apr Sweden Auction of government bonds 10-Apr Norway Auction of Treasuries 11-Apr United States Sale of 30-year bond 11-Apr Italy Bills auction 12-Apr Italy Medium-long term auction 12-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 16-Apr Japan Auction of 20-year government bonds 18-Apr Japan 1-year discount bill auction 18-Apr France Index-linked Securities auction 19-Apr Japan 3-month discount bill auction 23-Apr United States Sale of 2-year notes 23-Apr Japan Auction of 2-year government bonds 24-Apr United States Sale of 2-year floating rate notes 24-Apr United States Sale of 5-year notes 24-Apr Italy Zero Coupon/BTPi auction 24-Apr Sweden Auction of government bonds 25-Apr United States Sale of 7-year notes 26-Apr Italy Bills auction 27-Apr Italy Medium-long term auction 29-Apr Belgium OLO Auction
Reverse auction is a type of auction in which the roles of the buyer and the seller are reversed, with the primary objective to drive purchase prices downward.[41] While ordinary auctions provide suppliers the opportunity to find the best price among interested buyers, reverse auctions give buyers a chance to find the lowest-price supplier. During a reverse auction, suppliers may submit multiple offers, usually as a response to competing suppliers’ offers, bidding down the price of a good or service to the lowest price they are willing to receive. By revealing the competing bids in real time to every participating supplier, reverse auctions promote “information transparency”. This, coupled with the dynamic bidding process, improves the chances of reaching the fair market value of the item.[42] 

We will be auctioning LIVE @ 10:30 AM approx. 80 vehicles for the City of Norfolk Police, Towing & Recovery. City of Norfolk Auction Rules for Prospective BuyersPre-registration begins at 9:30AM, gates open at 10:00AM, and bidding starts at 10:30AM. There is a $100.00 (CASH) deposit registration that is fully refundable at the end of the auction (with bidder   [ View Full Listing ]

... cdebt.treas.gov 2 Krishna (2002), among others, analyzes the uniform auction in which the uniform price is the highest losing bid, the multi-unit version of a second price auction. We analyze the uniform auction with the price set to the lowest winning bid because that is what Treasuries use; it is the multi-unit version of the first-price auction. Brenner et al (2009) surveyed 48 countries, of which 24 used the discriminatory format and 9 the uniform format. tion, which in turn is higher than the low bid in the uniform auction. For both auction formats, bidders shade their bids with respect to the expected value of the good, conditional on the signal observation, for all signals but the lowest. We ch ...


Bids can be made online for Internet auctions, or in person for live auctions. Accepted forms of payment typically are major credit cards and checks, and payment is due at the time of the close of the auction. Details may vary among auction houses and the state the auction is held in. As with all auctions, the vehicle is sold to the highest bidder.

A ring can also be used to increase the price of an auction lot, in which the owner of the object being auctioned may increase competition by taking part in the bidding him or herself, but drop out of the bidding just before the final bid. In Britain and many other countries, rings and other forms of bidding on one's own object are illegal. This form of a ring was used as a central plot device in an episode of the British television series Lovejoy (series 4, episode 3), in which the price of a watercolour by the (fictional) Jessie Webb is inflated so that others by the same artist could be sold for more than their purchase price.
These programs are meant to benefit taxpayers as a whole, but could they benefit you, the individual taxpayer? Can you bag a bargain at a government auction? "GSA's goal is to maximize return to the federal government," the GSA spokesperson said. So they're not giving this stuff away. In fact, the government sets "reserves" or minimums for the most valuable property it auctions off. But judging from a wide tour of current government auctions and bids, there are still opportunities to walk away with valuable goods for a great price. Here's a look at who's selling what, where, and for how much.
Reverse auction is a type of auction in which the roles of the buyer and the seller are reversed, with the primary objective to drive purchase prices downward.[41] While ordinary auctions provide suppliers the opportunity to find the best price among interested buyers, reverse auctions give buyers a chance to find the lowest-price supplier. During a reverse auction, suppliers may submit multiple offers, usually as a response to competing suppliers’ offers, bidding down the price of a good or service to the lowest price they are willing to receive. By revealing the competing bids in real time to every participating supplier, reverse auctions promote “information transparency”. This, coupled with the dynamic bidding process, improves the chances of reaching the fair market value of the item.[42]
The relationship between the Fed and the primary dealers is governed by the Primary Dealers Act of 1988 and the Fed's operating policy "Administration of Relationships with Primary Dealers."[6] Primary dealers purchase the vast majority of the U.S. Treasury securities (T-bills, T-notes, and T-bonds) sold at auction, and resell them to the public. Their activities extend well beyond the Treasury market. For example, according to the Wall Street Journal Europe (2/9/06 p. 20), all of the top ten dealers in the foreign exchange market are also primary dealers, and between them account for almost 73% of foreign exchange trading volume. Arguably, this group's members are the most influential and powerful non-governmental institutions in global financial markets. Group membership changes slowly, with the current list available from the New York Fed.[2]
By the end of the 18th century, auctions of art works were commonly held in taverns and coffeehouses. These auctions were held daily, and auction catalogs were printed to announce available items. In some cases these catalogs were elaborate works of art themselves, containing considerable detail about the items being auctioned. At this time, Christie's established a reputation as a leading auction house, taking advantage of London's status as the major centre of the international art trade after the French Revolution.
The Auction Catalog has been prepared as a guide, and should be used as a guide only. Although the descriptions are believed to be correct its accuracy cannot be guaranteed or warranted. The Bidder acknowledges that all auction items are available for inspection prior to the auction and it is the Bidders responsibility to have inspected the item before bidding. No sale shall be invalidated; nor shall auctioneers be liable as a result of defects or inaccuracies of any lot.
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