Many financial assets, especially government bonds, are issued by an auction. An important feature of the design is the auction pricing mechanism: uniform versus discriminatory. Theoretical papers do not provide a definite answer regarding the dominance of one type of auction over the other. We investigate the revealed preferences of the issuers by surveying the sovereign issuers that conduct auctions. We find that the majority of the issuers/countries in our sample use a discriminatory auction… CONTINUE READING

Reserve auction is an auction where the item for sale may not be sold if the final bid is not high enough to satisfy the seller; that is, the seller reserves the right to accept or reject the highest bid.[37] In these cases a set 'reserve' price known to the auctioneer, but not necessarily to the bidders, may have been set, below which the item may not be sold.[36] If the seller announces to the bidders the reserve price, it is a public reserve price auction.[39] In contrast, if the seller does not announce the reserve price before the sale but only after the sale, it is a secret reserve price auction.[40] The reserve price may be fixed or discretionary. In the latter case, the decision to accept a bid is deferred to the auctioneer, who may accept a bid that is marginally below it. A reserve auction is safer for the seller than a no-reserve auction as they are not required to accept a low bid, but this could result in a lower final price if less interest is generated in the sale.[37]
HM Customs & Excise often enter items for auction seized from smugglers, fraudsters and racketeers. Executors may enter the assets of individuals dying in testate (i.e. without leaving a will) or in debt. The official receiver handles the liquidations of companies that have failed. Bailiffs will enter goods into auctions which have been seized for various reasons such as non-payment of bills or failure to keep up payments to finance companies.
Lots at police auctions range from brand new or graded from A down in used condition, or goods may be slightly marked. A good example would be high quality white goods. All items listed in any police auction are available for viewing and inspection prior to the sale. Faulty or damaged goods should be clearly marked, and faults are outlined by the auctioneer during the auction.
2. Know what car you're looking for You can find a list of what’s for sale online, either at Govsales.gov (if it’s a federal police auction) or through your local agency/county/department (just Google it). You need to have a decent idea of what you’re wanting to pick up, or you won’t have time to properly vet everything, which could get messy. See above.
Auction includes over 1,000 items from State and Federal agencies, abandoned safe deposit boxes, unredeemed pledged assets from various Financial Institutions, several business inventory liquidations, several estates and other consignors. Auction will feature collectible coins & currency, rare art, fine jewelry, luxury watches, sports memorabilia, rugs, electronics, all types of collectibles & much more! 
This is the practice, especially by high-end art auctioneers,[64] of raising false bids at crucial times in the bidding in order to create the appearance of greater demand or to extend bidding momentum for a work on offer. To call out these nonexistent bids auctioneers might fix their gaze at a point in the auction room that is difficult for the audience to pin down.[65] The practice is frowned upon in the industry.[65] In the United States, chandelier bidding is not illegal. In fact, an auctioneer may bid up the price of an item to the reserve price, which is an unstated amount the consignor will not sell the item for. However, the auction house is required to disclose this information.
Many financial assets, especially government bonds, are issued by an auction mechanism.An important feature of the design is the auction pricing mechanism: Uniform vs.Discriminatory. Theoretical papers do not provide a definite answer regarding thepreference of one mechanism over the other. Experimental papers investigated the issueunder an exogenous equal number of bidders. We investigate the ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
The Romans also used auctions to liquidate the assets of debtors whose property had been confiscated.[8] For example, Marcus Aurelius sold household furniture to pay off debts, the sales lasting for months.[9] One of the most significant historical auctions occurred in the year 193 A.D. when the entire Roman Empire was put on the auction block by the Praetorian Guard. On 28 March 193, the Praetorian Guard first killed emperor Pertinax, then offered the empire to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus outbid everyone else for the price of 6,250 drachmas per guard,[citation needed] an act that initiated a brief civil war. Didius was then beheaded two months later when Septimius Severus conquered Rome.[8]
CWS Asset Management and Sales (CWSAMS) is a nationwide company with expertise in the management, marketing and sales of a wide range of assets, specializing in web-based and live auctions. CWSAMS has provided continuous support to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, its legacy agencies, and other public & private entities for the marketing and sale of real and personal property for the past 26 years. An abbreviated list of clients are:
By the end of the 18th century, auctions of art works were commonly held in taverns and coffeehouses. These auctions were held daily, and auction catalogs were printed to announce available items. In some cases these catalogs were elaborate works of art themselves, containing considerable detail about the items being auctioned. At this time, Christie's established a reputation as a leading auction house, taking advantage of London's status as the major centre of the international art trade after the French Revolution.
Government, bankruptcy and general auctions are amongst the most common auctions to be found today. A government auction is simply an auction held on behalf of a government body generally at a general sale. Here one may find a vast range of materials that have to be sold by various government bodies, for example: HM Customs & Excise, the Official Receiver, the Ministry of Defence, local councils and authorities, liquidators, as well as material put up for auction by companies and members of the public. Also in this group you will find auctions ordered by executors who are entering the assets of individuals who have perhaps died in testate (those who have died without leaving a will), or in debt. One of the most interesting bodies to look out for at auction is HM Customs & Excise who may be entering at auction various items seized from smugglers, fraudsters and racketeers.
LIVE AUCTION! VINTAGE MOTORCYCLES, CARS! OVER 20 CLASSIC VEHICLES SELL REGARDLESS OF PRICE! HARLEY DAVIDSON, BSA, MOTO GUZZI, CUSHMAN, CUSTOM CHOPPERS, FORD THUNDERBIRD, CHEVY CORVETTE, CROSLEY, CHEVY TRUCK, FORD BRONCO ONLINE BIDDING IS NOW OPEN! OR BID LIVE IN-PERSON AT OUR PHOENIX WAREHOUSE! SATURDAY MARCH 23RD AUCTION PREVIEW 9:00 AM AUCTION START 10:00 AM ONLINE   [ View Full Listing ]

Real property - Primarily, this consists of developed land with buildings, usually acquired by the federal government for a specific purpose, such as a military base or office building. This also includes some U.S. Forest Service properties, which usually consist of administrative sites and facilities. The General Services Administration (GSA) is the federal agency responsible for selling developed surplus property.  


Internet auctions – With a potential audience of millions the Internet is the most exciting part of the auction world at the moment. Led by sites in the United States but closely followed by UK auction houses, specialist Internet auctions are springing up all over the place, selling everything from antiques and collectibles to holidays, air travel, brand new computers, and household equipment.
To finance the public debt, the U.S. Treasury sells bills, notes, bonds, Floating Rate Notes (FRNs), and Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) to institutional and individual investors through public auctions. Treasury auctions occur regularly and have a set schedule. There are three steps to an auction: announcement of the auction, bidding, and issuance of the purchased securities.
Another approach to choosing an SOB: The auctioneer may achieve good success by asking the expected final sales price for the item, as this method suggests to the potential buyers the item's particular value. For instance, say an auctioneer is about to sell a $1,000 car at a sale. Instead of asking $100, hoping to entice wide interest (for who wouldn't want a $1,000 car for $100?), the auctioneer may suggest an opening bid of $1,000; although the first bidder may begin bidding at a mere $100, the final bid may more likely approach $1,000.
... Bourjade (2009) modified the uniform-price auction rules in allowing the seller to ration bidders and proved that this rules provide a strategic foundation for underpricing when the seller has an interest in ownership dispersion and then many of the so-called "collusive-seeming" equilibria disappear. Brenner et al. (2009) investigated the revealed preferences of the issuers by surveying the sovereign issuers that conduct auctions and found that the majority of the issuers/countries in our sample use a discriminatory auction mechanism for issuing government debt, and they also concluded that market-oriented eco- Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 2015, 21(1): 96-117 nomies and those that practice common law tend to use a uniform method while economies who are less market oriented and practice civil law tend to use discriminatory price auctions. Holmberg (2009) characterized the Nash equilibrium in a pay-as-bid, divisible-good, pro- curement auction, and compared the offer curves and mark-ups of the derived equilibrium to the results for the SFE of a uniform-price auction. ...

Many financial assets, especially government bonds, are issued by an auction mechanism.An important feature of the design is the auction pricing mechanism: Uniform vs.Discriminatory. Theoretical papers do not provide a definite answer regarding thepreference of one mechanism over the other. Experimental papers investigated the issueunder an exogenous equal number of bidders. We investigate the ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
Many financial assets, especially government bonds, are issued by an auction mechanism.An important feature of the design is the auction pricing mechanism: Uniform vs.Discriminatory. Theoretical papers do not provide a definite answer regarding thepreference of one mechanism over the other. Experimental papers investigated the issueunder an exogenous equal number of bidders. We investigate the ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
You can find out when Treasury securities will be auctioned by viewing the recent announcements of pending auctions. Once an auction is announced, your institution may submit a bid for the security. You may bid directly through TreasuryDirect (except for Cash Management Bills), TAAPS (with an established account), or you can make arrangements to purchase securities through a broker, dealer, or financial institution.

We are a premier full-service private auction company liquidating property seized by police and federal agencies, property from abandoned safe deposit boxes, seized bank assets, bankruptcies, financial institutions, business inventory liquidations, and other consignors. Our firm conducts traditional live auctions throughout the year at various locations across the country, as well as auctions on the Internet. Please see our schedule of upcoming auctions for further details.
DON'T MISS OUT ON THIS OUTRAGEOUS AUCTION SALE!!!! NEW PERLICK DUAL TOWER BEER KEGERATOR, NEW PERLICK BAR BACK, NEW TRUE 2 DOOR COOLER, NEW TRUE ONE DOOR FREEZER, NEW ICE-O-MATIC ICE MACHINE, NEW GLAS TENDER BEER COOLER, PERLICK BEER COOLER, GLAS TENDER BAR BACK, NEW TRUE BEVERAGE MERCHANDISER, NEW TURBO AIR FREEZER MERCHANDISER, NEW FWE FOOD WARMING CABINET, SCOTSMAN ICE MACHINE, NEW ALTO SHAAM   [ View Full Listing ]
... Back and Zender (1993) andWang and Zender (2002)illustrate the nature of these equilibria and discuss the difficulties associated with drawing sharp comparisons across the pricing rules. 1 Empirically, there are limited and conflicting results concerning the relative attractiveness of the different auction formats (compare Simon (1992) to Umlauf (1993) andTenorio (1993)). In practice, even in the relatively simple realm of government debt auctions, different countries use different types of auctions (seeBrenner, Galai, and Sade (2009)). The importance of effective governmental borrowing in the remedies to the world financial crisis serves as a reminder of the importance of developing our understanding of this important market mechanism. ...
The New York City Police Department regularly holds online auctions to dispose of seized, unclaimed property and vehicles. The Property Clerk Division works with an outside auctioneer, called Property Room, which specializes in items seized by law enforcement agencies across the country. Online auctions include many high-end items, such as jewelry, rare coins, brand-name clothing, and consumer electronics. Vehicles are also available. Participation in online auctions is free and open to the general public.

Participants in any Treasury auction consist of small investors and institutional investors who submit bids categorized as either competitive or non-competitive tenders. Non-competitive tenders are submitted by smaller investors who are guaranteed to receive bills, but they won’t know what discount rate they will receive until the auction closes. In effect, these investors receive no guarantee on the price or discount received. An investor who submits a non-competitive bid agrees to accept whatever discount rate is decided at the auction, determined by the competitive side of the auction which is handled as a Dutch auction. The minimum non-competitive tender for a Treasury bill is $10,000. The non-competitive closing time for bills is normally 11:00 a.m. Eastern Time on auction day.

We will be auctioning LIVE @ 10:30 AM approx. 80 vehicles for the City of Norfolk Police, Towing & Recovery. City of Norfolk Auction Rules for Prospective BuyersPre-registration begins at 9:30AM, gates open at 10:00AM, and bidding starts at 10:30AM. There is a $100.00 (CASH) deposit registration that is fully refundable at the end of the auction (with bidder   [ View Full Listing ]
Participants in any Treasury auction consist of small investors and institutional investors who submit bids categorized as either competitive or non-competitive tenders. Non-competitive tenders are submitted by smaller investors who are guaranteed to receive bills, but they won’t know what discount rate they will receive until the auction closes. In effect, these investors receive no guarantee on the price or discount received. An investor who submits a non-competitive bid agrees to accept whatever discount rate is decided at the auction, determined by the competitive side of the auction which is handled as a Dutch auction. The minimum non-competitive tender for a Treasury bill is $10,000. The non-competitive closing time for bills is normally 11:00 a.m. Eastern Time on auction day.
GET THE DEALS WHILE THEY’RE STILL HOT From Our Burgerino Burger Joint Restaurant Which Features Bakers Pride Stainless Steel Commercial Natural Gas Two-Deck Pizza Oven, Large Stainless Steel Commercial Kitchen Hood Vents, Stainless Steel Commercial 3-Door, Refrigerated Work Top, Stainless Steel Commercial 2-Drawer Refrigerator, Beverage-Air Stainless Steel Commercial 2-Door, Refrigerated   [ View Full Listing ]
Combinatorial auction is any auction for the simultaneous sale of more than one item where bidders can place bids on an "all-or-nothing" basis on "packages" rather than just individual items. That is, a bidder can specify that he or she will pay for items A and B, but only if he or she gets both.[30] In combinatorial auctions, determining the winning bidder(s) can be a complex process where even the bidder with the highest individual bid is not guaranteed to win.[30] For example, in an auction with four items (W, X, Y and Z), if Bidder A offers $50 for items W & Y, Bidder B offers $30 for items W & X, Bidder C offers $5 for items X & Z and Bidder D offers $30 for items Y & Z, the winners will be Bidders B & D while Bidder A misses out because the combined bids of Bidders B & D is higher ($60) than for Bidders A and C ($55).
Each type of auction has its specific qualities such as pricing accuracy and time required for preparing and conducting the auction. The number of simultaneous bidders is of critical importance. Open bidding during an extended period of time with many bidders will result in a final bid that is very close to the true market value. Where there are few bidders and each bidder is allowed only one bid, time is saved, but the winning bid may not reflect the true market value with any degree of accuracy. Of special interest and importance during the actual auction is the time elapsed from the moment that the first bid is revealed to the moment that the final (winning) bid has become a binding agreement.
Private treaty sales – Occasionally, when looking at an auction catalogue some of the items have been withdrawn. Usually these goods have been sold by 'private treaty'. This means that the goods have already been sold off, usually to a trader or dealer on a private, behind-the-scenes basis before they have had a chance to be offered at the auction sale. These goods are rarely in single lots – photocopiers or fax machines would generally be sold in bulk lots.
All airport baggage personel and TSA staff at every airport are nothing but a theft ring. All of them profit from what they steal and no inquiries or investigations are ever actually conducted. The paperwork is just filed, with much laughter. Everything with real value, such as cameras, jewelry and electronics is smuggled out in the pockets of airport personnel on a daily basis. I doubt that these auctions have much to offer since it is the stuff that was deemed to worthless to steal by airport staff. They just busted a stewardess in Seattle who snagged a passenger's iPad. They tracked it to her home. Maybe we need a vigilante group putting tracking devices in our cameras, x-boxes, etc., so we can do the same? Makes you wonder why the cops don't use trackable "bait" items to shut down these vast theft rings. Over one million pieces of luggage were classified as "missing" and never located (ever)by the airlines last year. Think about that.
Private sources. In addition to these free government sites, you can use private sites. These sites provide information about federal and local government auctions. Gov-Auctions gives you access to both federal and state auctions. The sites charge a one-time fee of $39.00 for access to their information. Having all auctions on one site can be helpful. If you are launching a serious car search or buy auction cars on a frequent basis, paying to use this site might make financial sense
Reserve auction is an auction where the item for sale may not be sold if the final bid is not high enough to satisfy the seller; that is, the seller reserves the right to accept or reject the highest bid.[37] In these cases a set 'reserve' price known to the auctioneer, but not necessarily to the bidders, may have been set, below which the item may not be sold.[36] If the seller announces to the bidders the reserve price, it is a public reserve price auction.[39] In contrast, if the seller does not announce the reserve price before the sale but only after the sale, it is a secret reserve price auction.[40] The reserve price may be fixed or discretionary. In the latter case, the decision to accept a bid is deferred to the auctioneer, who may accept a bid that is marginally below it. A reserve auction is safer for the seller than a no-reserve auction as they are not required to accept a low bid, but this could result in a lower final price if less interest is generated in the sale.[37]
These programs are meant to benefit taxpayers as a whole, but could they benefit you, the individual taxpayer? Can you bag a bargain at a government auction? "GSA's goal is to maximize return to the federal government," the GSA spokesperson said. So they're not giving this stuff away. In fact, the government sets "reserves" or minimums for the most valuable property it auctions off. But judging from a wide tour of current government auctions and bids, there are still opportunities to walk away with valuable goods for a great price. Here's a look at who's selling what, where, and for how much.
The word "auction" is derived from the Latin augeō, which means "I increase" or "I augment".[1] For most of history, auctions have been a relatively uncommon way to negotiate the exchange of goods and commodities. In practice, both haggling and sale by set-price have been significantly more common.[5] Indeed, before the seventeenth century the few auctions that were held were sporadic.[6]
Bid NOW http://baileyshonor.com/auctions/2019/OL190321/details.htm Over 70 pieces of Roseville Pottery, 25 lots of vintage colored plastic table top radios and transistors, Over 35 lots of antique and vintage clocks (mantle and alarm), nice painted primitive cupboards and cabinets including corner cabinets and pie safe, Shaker and Deacon benches, Hoosier style kitchen cupboards, 60" HD 3D   [ View Full Listing ]
Auctioneers are normally contracted by the different organisations within their local area. An auction at the centre of London for example, will deal with the assets of companies whose bankruptcy proceedings are being dealt with by courts in Greater London. An auction in Leeds will handle the assets of companies in Yorkshire that are being dealt with by Leeds City Court.
As you browse the government auction sites above, you'll notice some link you to additional sites run by private contractors. These contractors have legitimate relationships with the government, but bidder beware: other private companies will try to make their auctions seem like government auctions as a marketing ploy. Always start with the legitimate links provided by the government itself. Good luck!
MoneySupermarket.com Financial Group Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FRN: 303190). The registered office address of both MoneySupermarket.com Group PLC and MoneySupermarket.com Financial Group Limited (registered in England No. 3157344) is MoneySupermarket House, St. David's Park, Ewloe, Chester, CH5 3UZ. MoneySavingExpert.com Limited is an appointed representative of MoneySupermarket.com Financial Group Limited.
The District of Columbia now auctions its surplus property online through GovDeals, a Liquidity Services, Inc. marketplace. The district awarded the contract for the management of the inventory, appraisal, sale and shipping of the city's surplus property to Liquidity Services Inc. LSI conducts auctions of city assets such as vehicles, police automobile accessories, computer equipment, radios and other communications equipment, office furniture and other supplies through its online marketplace. The auctions are expected to improve data tracking and financial oversight of the city's surplus asset disposition activities.
Charity auctions - Used by nonprofits, higher education, and religious institutions as a method to raise funds for a specific mission or cause both through the act of bidding itself, and by encouraging participants to support the cause and make personal donations.[53] Often, these auctions are linked with another charity event like a benefit concert.[54]
ANTIQUES - COLLECTIBLES TOYS & MORE Thursday, March 21, 2019 at 5:30 PM Reynolds Auction Co., Inc. 3569 Palmyra-Newark Road, Palmyra, NY 14522 The Following is from the Estate of Dr. Goria Russell, a long time collector & part time dealer and from a local consignor. RUGS: Heriz 7' 7" x 10' 5"; Sparta 8' 1" x 8' 9"; Chinese 9' 2" x 11' 10";    [ View Full Listing ]
U.S. Marshal's Service Auctions : And finally, the U.S. Marshal's service auctions off some true bling as part of its mission to "combat major criminal activity by disrupting and dismantling illegal enterprises" and "depriving criminals of the proceeds of illegal activity." Once again, there is real estate, but also businesses, cash cars, collectibles — and more.
Treasury Department Auctions:  The other agency very active in holding auctions is the Treasury Department, with roughly 300 sales per year. Treasury often offers in-person previews in California, Florida, New Jersey and Texas. Treasury auctions off "property forfeited as a result of violations of federal law enforced by the Department of Treasury or nonpayment of Internal Revenue Service taxes," according to its website. There are many categories of goods, including concrete items like antiques and coins but also less tangible property like stocks and patents.
The bill auction accepts competitive bids to determine the discount rate to be paid on each issue. A group of securities dealers, known as primary dealers, are authorized and obligated to submit competitive bids on a pro-rata share of every Treasury bill auction. The winning bid on each issue will determine the interest rate that is paid on that issue. Once an issue is purchased, the dealers are allowed to hold, sell, or trade the bills. The demand for bills at auction is determined by market and economic conditions.
We will be auctioning LIVE @ 10:30 AM approx. 80 vehicles for the City of Norfolk Police, Towing & Recovery. City of Norfolk Auction Rules for Prospective BuyersPre-registration begins at 9:30AM, gates open at 10:00AM, and bidding starts at 10:30AM. There is a $100.00 (CASH) deposit registration that is fully refundable at the end of the auction (with bidder   [ View Full Listing ]
In the United States, a primary dealer is a bank or securities broker-dealer that is permitted to trade directly with the Federal Reserve System ("the Fed").[2] Such firms are required to make bids or offers when the Fed conducts open market operations, provide information to the Fed's open market trading desk, and to participate actively in U.S. Treasury securities auctions.[3] They consult with both the U.S. Treasury and the Fed about funding the budget deficit and implementing monetary policy. Many former employees of primary dealers work at the Treasury because of their expertise in the government debt markets, though the Fed avoids a similar revolving door policy.[4][5]

The Treasury in Rome plans to auction as much as 5 billion euros ($5.7 billion) of debt Friday, including benchmark five-year and 10-year securities. Those sales represent the final government debt supply in the euro area for 2018. The results will provide an indication of the underlying demand for Italian bonds next year, according to Danske Bank A/S.
Consignee and consignor - as pertaining to auctions, the consignor (also called the seller, and in some contexts the vendor) is the person owning the item to be auctioned or the owner's representative,[65] while the consignee is the auction house. The consignor maintains title until such time that an item is purchased by a bidder and the bidder pays the auction house.
These programs are meant to benefit taxpayers as a whole, but could they benefit you, the individual taxpayer? Can you bag a bargain at a government auction? "GSA's goal is to maximize return to the federal government," the GSA spokesperson said. So they're not giving this stuff away. In fact, the government sets "reserves" or minimums for the most valuable property it auctions off. But judging from a wide tour of current government auctions and bids, there are still opportunities to walk away with valuable goods for a great price. Here's a look at who's selling what, where, and for how much.
MoneySupermarket.com Financial Group Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FRN: 303190). The registered office address of both MoneySupermarket.com Group PLC and MoneySupermarket.com Financial Group Limited (registered in England No. 3157344) is MoneySupermarket House, St. David's Park, Ewloe, Chester, CH5 3UZ. MoneySavingExpert.com Limited is an appointed representative of MoneySupermarket.com Financial Group Limited.
Law enforcement has the ability to seize or confiscate the property of criminals, or property used by criminals or their associates for the purpose of conducting illegal activity. For example, a person convicted of drug trafficking or the selling of stolen property will forfeit their vehicles and any other property that is used to perpetuate illegal activity or was obtained by the proceeds of that illegal activity. When a vehicle is seized, it's held by the agency until the time of auction.
Removal of all items shall be the sole responsibility of the purchaser. Loading assistance is provided as a courtesy; however, purchaser assumes all risk and responsibility for loading and removal of purchases. Auctioneer reserves the right to require proof of adequate insurance coverage from any purchaser items requiring dismantling, rigging or hot cutting. Purchaser agrees to indemnify and save harmless both, consignor and Auctioneer, its officers, directors, employees, agents, and attorneys against any damage caused by the acts of purchaser. All items must be removed from the auction facility within 2 days after the auction date. If for any reason purchaser fails to remove any purchase within the time specified, the purchase shall be deemed abandoned, and Auctioneer at its sole discretion may resell the items. Purchaser shall be liable for any rent incurred or damages suffered by Auctioneer because of purchaser’s failure to remove any item. Failure to remove items will result in a rental / storage fee of not less than $25 per item per day.
Silent auction is a variant of the English auction in which bids are written on a sheet of paper. At the predetermined end of the auction, the highest listed bidder wins the item.[43] This auction is often used in charity events, with many items auctioned simultaneously and "closed" at a common finish time.[43][44] The auction is "silent" in that there is no auctioneer selling individual items,[43] the bidders writing their bids on a bidding sheet often left on a table near the item.[45] At charity auctions, bid sheets usually have a fixed starting amount, predetermined bid increments, and a "guaranteed bid" amount which works the same as a "buy now" amount. Other variations of this type of auction may include sealed bids.[43] The highest bidder pays the price he or she submitted.[43]
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